Forklifts shine in hard 12 months, -. Information tale in Forkliftaction Information
There’s indisputably that 2022 used to be a hard 12 months for fabrics dealing with, logistics and lots of different sectors of the economic system.
Main demanding situations, in step with John Paxton, CEO of the US-based trade staff MHI, incorporated ongoing provide chain disruptions, body of workers demanding situations, inflation and the demanding situations of matching capability to moving shopper calls for.
“Those demanding situations make it tough to forecast call for, arrange wages and to keep watch over provider inflation,” he says.
“The geopolitical have an effect on on Europe attributable to the invasion of Ukraine, the China-Taiwan tensions and the Chinese language COVID insurance policies may additional prolong the disruptions and the inflationary pressures, in particular in semi-conductor parts, power and meals, neatly into 2023,” he warns.
John L. Gelsimino, chairman of MHEDA, has identical observations about 2022, bringing up inflationary pricing, provide chain disruptions, worker acquisition, retention and psychological well being problems from pressures outside and inside of the administrative center as primary demanding situations. “To mention 2022 used to be hard could be a real understatement. However I nonetheless believe those quite just right issues. In my opinion, demanding situations in years previous associated with an financial slowdown and the whole thing related to this is a lot worse,” he explains.
David Goss, technical director of UKMHA, additionally highlights the have an effect on of geopolitical traits in 2022: “The industrial outlook initially of the 12 months used to be extraordinarily sure with a powerful restoration forecast. This used to be sadly disrupted through provide chain constraints, the conflict in Ukraine, home political upheaval and emerging inflation which blended to make precise marketplace stipulations abruptly hard.”
Nearer to house, Goss says the looming finish of the validity of CE marking gave the look of being the best problem in 2022. “On the other hand, a last-minute govt U-turn has now prolonged the cut-off date for an extra two years till 31 December 2024.”
For trade coaching affiliation AITT, lingering trainer shortages have ended in longer wait instances for operator coaching and an intensified hunt for brand new instructors.
“On the similar time, the call for for operator coaching has been at an all-time excessive. Emerging operational call for inside fabrics dealing with and logistics approach websites require extra personnel to paintings at busy websites. However labour shortages because of Brexit and the pandemic imply firms could also be depending on new, brief or company staff, who all require coaching,” says Liam Knight, managing director of AITT.
“There was a backlog in coaching because the pandemic, and the lengthy wait instances imply some shoppers could also be tempted to go for coaching suppliers who aren’t approved. This isn’t really helpful. Companies will have to now not compromise at the high quality of coaching they obtain, as it might imply operators would not have the right abilities and information required to perform administrative center delivery safely.”
Coaching used to be additionally excessive at the time table of the Lifting Apparatus Engineers Affiliation (LEEA). “2022 started with the release of the Degree 3 Lifting Apparatus Technician apprenticeship usual in England, which gives a solution to the long-standing problem of organising a pathway for brand new recruits into the Lifting Trade,” says CEO Ross Moloney.
“In the United Kingdom, adjustments caused through Brexit ended in the advent of UKCA marking, which created problems for the lifting sector. LEEA performed an important function in operating constructively with govt against a technique to those problems, and continues to experience a just right courting with the Division for Trade, Power & Commercial Technique (BEIS),” he provides.
World apparatus gross sales in 2022 have been tipped to fall relatively from 2021 – 2.25 million devices in comparison to 2.34 million, in step with Global Commercial Truck Affiliation (WITA) information, but if the general tally is available in, it can be even decrease on account of the have an effect on of the conflict in Ukraine, ongoing provide chain demanding situations, emerging power prices and inflation.
That, on the other hand, didn’t prevent the massive gamers reporting expansion in orders, gross sales, and revenues all the way through 2022.
Jungheinrich not too long ago reported a “forged 0.33 quarter”, with orders up 23% towards the top of 2021.
Hyster-Yale has reported third-quarter 2022 revenues expanding through 13.1% from the similar time final 12 months, whilst unit shipments grew through 5.6%.
KION’s order consumption rose 2% from the similar length final 12 months, as earnings rose through 9.4%.
Nevertheless, many of the producers have been hesitant to expect additional expansion, with many cautioning that the worldwide economic system used to be slowing and insist used to be prone to be contained.
One construction which emerged within the tough 2022 industry surroundings used to be dynamic pricing, with KION a few of the first to introduce the fluid pricing type and Palfinger flagging a shift to dynamic pricing from the beginning of 2023.
Mergers and acquisitions
The most important mergers and acquisitions information of 2022 used to be the cancellation of the deliberate merger between Cargotec and Konecranes. After suffering to achieve regulatory approval in all their markets, the 2 firms in spite of everything hit a hurdle when the United Kingdom Festival & Markets Authority (CMA) blocked the union.
Some other mega-merger which didn’t make it out of the blocks used to be Ritchie Bros. Auctioneers, which used to be compelled to scrap its takeover bid of Euro Auctions. This deal used to be additionally squashed through the CMA which had considerations that the proposed deal may scale back pageant in the United Kingdom marketplace, which might lead to upper costs for the corporations’ shoppers and decrease high quality provider.
“Ritchie Bros. and Euro Auctions are the 2 largest public sale provider suppliers for used heavy apparatus in the United Kingdom and are depended on through companies around the nation,” the authority stated.
One house of higher acquisition job in 2022 used to be apparatus rent. As call for for rent apparatus rose in nearly all geographies, buyouts intensified, with UK-based Briggs Apparatus particularly lively.
In February, Briggs finished the purchase of Aerial Platform Rent Restricted, one in every of Eire’s main powered get admission to rent firms. In Would possibly, it adopted up with the purchase of powered get admission to apparatus specialist Get entry to Plus and its sister corporate, TrainingPlus, a national coaching and abilities supplier.
The purchase path persisted in September, when Briggs Apparatus finished the purchase of Galway Plant and Device Rent (GPT), one in every of Eire’s greatest and maximum a success plant, industrial car and gear rent consultants.
Briggs ended the 12 months with every other Irish acquisition to its identify: Blulift, some of the Republic of Eire’s main regional suppliers of powered get admission to apparatus.
In every other rent sector construction, Sunbelt UK got Media Get entry to Answers to amplify its functions for the movie and TV marketplace. MAS is a consultant apparatus hirer for the media and picture industries, with depots with regards to manufacturing amenities at Pinewood, Shepperton, Elstree, Longcross, 3 Turbines, Bottleyard Bristol, Media Town Manchester, BBC Glasgow and ITV Leeds.
And whilst others have been rising the marketplace, Dutch apparatus rent specialist Riwal introduced its plans to hand over the United Kingdom marketplace. The corporate stated after 13 years’ job in the United Kingdom, it used to be “actively bearing in mind a plan to stop … operations in the United Kingdom as in line with 1 January 2023”.
The plan is in response to the long-term outlook of the United Kingdom condominium marketplace and the small marketplace place of Riwal UK.
In November, Manitou Workforce got 100% of the stocks within the Italian corporate GI.ERRE SRL, founded in Castelfranco, and specialising in provider actions for Manitou merchandise. With this acquire, the crowd says it is going to reinforce the provider high quality it supplies to its shoppers in that area. Previous, Manitou Workforce showed the acquisition of the entire highbrow belongings of French company ATN Platforms, a consultant within the design and meeting of aerial paintings platforms, particularly vertical platforms, within the framework of a judicial restoration process sooner than the Industrial Court docket of Agen.
In December, Manitou Workforce got an 82% stake in easyLi, a consultant within the design and manufacturing of lithium ion batteries. Manitou believes the acquisition will prolong its competence with industry strains devoted to R&D and the manufacturing and reconditioning of those batteries.
Additionally within the battery area, Daylight Workforce Power Garage Techniques got 51% of the percentage capital of Triathlon Protecting. The purchase, topic to approvals, will have to lead to a far greater presence for the Greek-based staff which targets to pursue a management function, basically in Europe and america, considerably contributing to decarbonisation and effort safety, construction on scalable manufacturing and innovation functions, in each lead acid and lithium ion batteries.
The apparatus provide marketplace used to be extraordinarily tight for far of the 12 months, with extraordinarily lengthy supply instances quoted at the beginning of the 12 months. This led to a couple ingenious answers, together with the acquisition of refurbished machines.
In February, CK Meals Retail outlets, the biggest impartial meals store in South West Wales, upgraded the fabrics dealing with apparatus at its Llanelli warehouse and distribution centre with the purchase of a fleet of refurbished Toyota powered pallet vans.
With ongoing world provide chain problems resulting in longer lead instances for every type of recent fabrics dealing with apparatus, Toyota Subject material Dealing with UK famous that call for for its pre-owned forklifts used to be at an all-time excessive as truck customers glance to second- or third-life machines to fortify their fleets.
“We are seeing an important build up within the choice of firms that go for ‘mixed’ fleets – a mixture of new and used machines,” stated Stuart Reilly, TMHUK condominium and used director.
In January, Jungheinrich opened its moment used apparatus refurbishing plant in Ploiesti, Romania. With the brand new web page, which covers some 5,000 sqm, the corporate hopes to fulfill the rising call for for second-hand fabrics dealing with apparatus and create capability for additional expansion.
In Would possibly, Bobcat stepped up its used apparatus gross sales, with the release of Bobcat Qualified, the corporate’s new qualified pre-owned program. Following a a success pilot advent, Bobcat started to provide those Bobcat Qualified used machines in the United Kingdom and Eire, France and Germany, thru its authorized sellers.
On the similar time, B&B Attachments started urging forklift homeowners to believe used attachments as an economical manner of upgrading their apparatus.
The United Kingdom-based attachment maker stated it used to be in a novel place to supply reconditioned clamps to fulfill its shoppers’ necessities.
In July, French aerial paintings platform maker Haulotte began providing refurbished apparatus thru its RESTART through Haulotte program, designed to fulfill the rising call for for Haulotte-branded reconditioned aerial paintings platforms.
The higher job within the refurbished apparatus marketplace additionally noticed Linde, some of the pioneers of factory-refurbished forklifts, release a brand new program of upgrades for its used apparatus. Linde has scrapped its Plus, Tremendous and Extremely designations in favour of a uniform, “Licensed Vehicles” remanufacturing usual. Earlier than a used truck is granted the “Licensed Vehicles” seal of high quality, it undergoes a rigorous inspection and remanufacturing procedure.
By means of September, the Bolzoni Workforce had a Used & Condominium portal lively in 9 Eu nations.
Provide chain constraints additionally noticed higher call for for apparatus condominium, prompting plenty of important fleet expansions, particularly in the United Kingdom.
In June, some of the UK’s main apparatus condominium companies invested in a fleet of name new JCB rotating telehandlers in a deal value greater than GBP5 million (USD6.13 million) – the largest order up to now for the brand new product. Charles Wilson Engineers ordered 25 machines together with the 21-m 555-210R and 26-m 555-260R machines. Provided through broker Greenshields JCB, the brand new machines are running for CW Plant’s shoppers throughout the United Kingdom.
In different important orders, Hiab won an important repeat order in July for Moffett M8 55 NX truck-mounted forklifts in america. The EUR16.8 million (USD17 million) order used to be positioned through some of the nation’s greatest construction fabrics provide firms that still made an important order with Hiab in Q1 2022.
In June, Chinese language forklift maker Heli delivered an important order of apparatus to a number one South American buyer. The five hundred Li-ion forklifts have been changed to have in mind the regulations and laws of more than a few nations and areas, emission insurance policies and buyer configuration necessities.
The corporate adopted up with a supply of just about 100 forklifts to a South East Asian buyer. Lots of the forklifts becoming a member of the fleet of the well known chemical corporate have been Heli G3 collection 4-5 T lithium battery merchandise.
In March, the Ziegler Workforce, one in every of Europe’s greatest sawmill operators, renewed its forklift fleet, changing round 25 of its Hyundai automobiles with new fashions.
Automation orders additionally rose in 2022, with world delivery and logistics supplier Geodis and Locus Robotics pronouncing a brand new enlargement settlement to deploy 1,000 LocusBots at Geodis’ international warehouse places over the following 24 months. This represented some of the trade’s greatest AMR offers thus far.
In June, Dematic used to be awarded a freelance to supply warehouse automation for omnichannel store Radial Europe. The provider of clever automation era will ship 299 self sustaining cell robots (AMRs) to Radial’s logistics centre in Groningen, Netherlands. The delivery robots will take over computerized pallet and tote conveying to the switch stations and choosing stations. Dematic may be putting in 45 pick out and pack stations on the centre .
Assembly once more
2022 noticed the go back of trade occasions, and Forkliftaction attended the primary in-person LogiMAT since 2019.
The 3-day match attracted 1,571 exhibitors from 39 nations, with shows unfold throughout 125,000-plus sqm in all 10 show off halls on the Stuttgart showgrounds.
Organisers estimated the attendance at round 50,000 and we reported that there used to be one subject looming at the back of nearly each dialog: provide chain problems.
Nearly each exhibitor were suffering from the double whammy of a scarcity of and value blow-out for metal and the ongoing paucity of pc chips required in a rising vary of packages in maximum machines.
The conflict in Ukraine and the sanctions imposed on Russia led to a scarcity within the world metal provide and noticed costs spiralling, however the excellent news simply after the display used to be that the Eu metal worth started easing.
The 12 months additionally noticed the resumption of the IMHX display in Birmingham, the primary face-to-face match held beneath the auspices of the UKMHA, shaped from the merger of the British Commercial Truck Affiliation (BITA) and the Fork Raise Truck Affiliation (FLTA).
“We’re very happy that every one of those occasions (UKMHA and the Archies) have been rather well attended, and the worth of bodily conferences used to be transparent. Clearly, digital conferences will proceed to be a useful gizmo, however it’s imaginable to succeed in a lot more with other people in the similar room,” stated David Goss of UKHMA .
Organisers labeled MODEX 2022 as their best possible match thus far, with greater than 37,000 guests attending the collection at Atlanta’s Georgia Global Congress Middle.
Customer attendance used to be up 20% at the final pre-pandemic display, MODEX 2018.
“MODEX 2022 used to be an enormous good fortune and a dramatic go back to in-person occasions for the availability chain trade,” stated John Paxton, CEO, MHI. “After two years, exhibitors and attendees have been excited to be there and energised through the chance to attach and get again to the industry of finding the most recent provide chain era and innovation in consumer.”
In June, Linde Subject material Dealing with hosted ‘a number of thousand’ shoppers and potentialities from around the globe at its Global of Subject material Dealing with (WoMH) match in Mannheim.
Over a space of 17,000 sqm on the Mannheim Maimarkt web page, the intralogistics specialist offered its intensive portfolio of goods, answers and services and products over 9 days.
The LEEA resumed its occasions in past due 2021 with the standalone LEEA Awards, however October 2022 noticed the go back of its flagship LiftEx occasions, in conjunction with the 2022 Awards, in Aberdeen.
Ultimate 12 months’s TOC Europe match, the primary in 3 years, attracted round 3,500 attendees from over 80 international locations.
A brand new protection match, the Protection in Logistics Virtual Convention, used to be streamed continue to exist 23 November 2022. The development introduced in combination professionals and answer suppliers with resolution makers and protection execs who have been desperate to learn to make their operations as secure as imaginable.
In Brazil, the Latin American Congress of Ports (AAPA Latino) match set an attendance report, with greater than 800 delegates from 30 nations over 3 days. The development incorporated a industry display which introduced in combination greater than 100 providers from the logistics and maritime sector.
A serving to hand
The headlines have been ruled through conflict and herbal crisis in 2022, and fabrics dealing with stepped as much as lend a hand.
Along with implementing financial sanctions on Russia based on its assault on Ukraine, forklift makers rallied in fortify of Ukraine aid projects.
Combilift teamed up with the Ukrainian Purple Pass Society, making an preliminary contribution of EUR50,000 (USD55,000) to help the availability of aid help to the civilian inhabitants, together with other people displaced and other people at the transfer.
There have been identical gestures from Uplifting and Cascade, whilst KION donated EUR1 million (USD1.09 million) to the German Purple Pass, to make sure that the struggling inhabitants won the essential fortify as briefly as imaginable.
Apparatus hirers, in particular the ones in the United Kingdom, additionally rallied to fortify Ukraine during the Plant and Rent Help Alliance. The Alliance organized deliveries of provides to Ukraine, operating with teams like Rotary World.
Within the latter a part of the 12 months, huge areas of the US have been devastated through Typhoon Ian, which left a minimum of 150 fatalities in its wake, together with 139 in Florida. Logistics fortify staff ALAN spoke back to the crisis, because it had up to now to Typhoon Fiona, the Jackson water disaster, and flooding in Kentucky.
The crowd co-ordinated the choice of provides and aid fabrics, together with arranging warehouse area, forklifts, pallet jacks and rough-terrain stackers in addition to vans and trailers. In the meantime, Toyota Subject material Dealing with and its spouse firms raised USD100,000 for the American Purple Pass to fortify communities suffering from the devastation of Typhoon Ian.
Later, Noblelift North The united states donated 3 PTE45N lithium ion-powered pallet vans to the Harry Chapin Meals Financial institution in Fortress Meyers, Florida, within the wake of Typhoon Ian.
2022 used to be a 12 months of vital milestones and anniversaries.
In September, Dutch forklift attachments and logistics answers provider Meijer Dealing with Answers started marking its a centesimal anniversary.
Meijer Workforce began as a one-man industry in 1921, based through Jan Meijer within the Frisian village of Wier. Meijer to start with all for native agriculture, sooner than transferring into contracting and earthmoving, wearing out upkeep and creating new machines and system portions.
The industry later shifted its center of attention against mechanical engineering and development.
Meijer Dealing with Answers, now beneath the route of the fourth technology, specialises within the manufacturing of logistics answers from its base in Sint Jacobiparochie, the place it employs roughly 170 other people.
In July, round 15,500 visitors attended the JCB Circle of relatives Pageant, staged as a ‘thanks’ to 1000’s of UK workers previous and provide. JCB had firstly supposed to have fun its seventy fifth anniversary in 2020, however plans for a celebration needed to be placed on ice for 2 years because of the COVID-19 pandemic.
In June, Raise-Tek Elecar, based in 1972 in Italy, celebrated its fiftieth anniversary. A subsidiary of Cascade Company since its acquisition in October 2021, the corporate lines its historical past to a small warehouse in Castel San Giovanni, Italy. Lately founded in Piacenza, Italy, Raise-Tek Elecar employs 230 other people.
In October, Swiss fabrics dealing with broker Arbor AG celebrated its sixtieth anniversary with 3 days of festivities at its premises in Lindental, Bern. Greater than 1,000 other people joined the celebrations, marking a adventure which started in 1962 with a sideloader from the Swedish logo LMV, and sees the relatives corporate these days using over 65 other people and providing a various vary of goods, together with forklifts, four-way forklifts, telehandlers, heavy-duty forklifts, portable forklifts and paintings platforms.
Additionally marking 60 years that month used to be US broker staff Wolter, Inc. The Wolter, Inc. tale started in 1962, when Otto Wolter based LPM Portions & Provider, later named Wisconsin Raise Truck, out of a two-car storage in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
In 1995, Otto Wolter started taking a look to boost up expansion thru acquisition, beginning with Fiorenza Subject material Dealing with, Illinois and including every other dozen entities sooner than obtaining Valley Commercial Crane in Ohio this 12 months.
In December, Wolter once more broadened its choices through obtaining Ohio-based dock and door apparatus and repair supplier Ohio Valley Upkeep LLC, which provides dock and door apparatus, in addition to complete provider and fortify from factory-trained provider technicians for all makes and fashions of dock apparatus, together with set up.
And in February, Kaup marked its sixtieth anniversary. Began in 1962 with 5 workers, the medium-sized relatives industry from Aschaffenburg now employs round 900 other people international. Managing director Holger Kaup famous that the marketplace surroundings for attachments has modified significantly over the last six a long time: “It’s extra aggressive than ever.”
In April, Manitou UK additionally marked part a century, after turning into the crowd’s first global in 1972 beneath the identify Manitou Website Raise Restricted. In 1980, Manitou Website Raise Ltd expanded to its present premises within the the city of Verwood, close to Southampton.
The corporate additionally celebrated the 30-year anniversary of its Manitou Benelux subsidiary founded in Perwez in Belgium. The 0.33 subsidiary of the crowd, based in 1991 after the UK and Italy, supplies technical and industrial experience to Manitou and Gehl sellers founded in Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg.
Additionally in April, the founders of truck-mounted forklift maker ABT Loadmac visited the Hereford corporate they began 50 years in the past. Anthony Seaside Thomas and Roger Gates have been inspired through how the industry has advanced.
The founders have been particularly excited by the manufacture of the Loadmac forklifts which might be 100% manufactured through ABT from uncooked metal to completed system, and exported everywhere the arena.
In November, Dematic celebrated 50 years of operations in Asia. Milestones come with Dematic rolling out the primary computerized machine in Singapore within the Seventies, the primary AS/RS in Malaysia within the Eighties, the primary AS/RS in India in 2007, and the biggest high-speed computerized sorter in Asia commissioned in Korea in 2005.
Manufacturing milestones during the 12 months incorporated Jungheinrich’s 100,000th Li-ion truck. The numerous ETV 216i achieve truck used to be delivered as a part of an order of 16 an identical vans to the Amazon warehouse in Leipzig, the place 140 different Jungheinrich electrical vans are already in use.
In Would possibly, Canada’s Delta-Q Applied sciences introduced the cargo of its 4 millionth battery charger. With every charger representing the prospective to avoid wasting one metric ton of emissions, this crucial milestone equates to 4 million metric heaps of carbon emissions stored because the corporate’s founding, additional cementing its imprint on world electrification and sustainability.
In September, Locus Robotics surpassed the only billion devices picked milestone. The fulfillment used to be attained simply 59 days after Locus registered 900 million devices picked.
It took Locus 1,542 days to pick out its first 100 million devices and simply 59 days for the final 100 million choices.
On the time, LocusBots had travelled greater than 17 million mi. (27.4 million km) in shoppers’ warehouses, the identical of greater than 670 instances across the earth or 35 spherical journeys to the moon.
In November, Kalmar Ottawa offered its 80,000th terminal tractor. The milestone terminal tractor used to be offered through Cal-Raise, a family-owned dealership established in 1964 that has represented the Ottawa logo around the western United States since 1978.
Kalmar Ottawa produced the primary terminal tractor in 1959.
In February, former Hyster govt Robert ‘Bob’ Houston passed on to the great beyond peacefully after a fight with dementia.
Bob had retired in 2010 from Hyster Corporate in Greenville, NC. Previous to operating for Hyster, he used to be the vice chairman and normal supervisor for Hydroelectric Raise Truck, Inc, in Wilmington, Ohio. He had additionally up to now been with the Hyster Distributions organisation as department supervisor on the Dayton department of the Bode-Finn Corporate.
The Subject material Dealing with Apparatus Distributor Affiliation (MHEDA) in June introduced the passing of Evelyn McWilliams on the age of 80.
MHEDA CEO Liz Richards advised contributors: “A lot of you knew Evelyn who used to be a faithful and devoted crew member at MHEDA for a few years. I labored with Evelyn from 1995 till her retirement in 2007. She used to be a huge lend a hand to such a lot of folks; she beloved MHEDA, its contributors, and her co-workers.”
Richards, in the meantime, introduced in November that she can be leaving MHEDA.
“When I used to be first employed to run this high quality organisation, I by no means realised what an have an effect on the trade and the affiliation would have on my existence. It is bittersweet for me to inform you that I’ve determined on a retirement date and we will be able to be undertaking a seek for the substitute of the CEO,” she stated in a video message to contributors.
B&B Attachments paid tribute to George Bell, who passed on to the great beyond on 5 October, surrounded through his loving relatives.
“George used to be beloved through his friends and family, and it can’t be put into phrases the loss this is felt through his passing. Along with his relatives, the ones folks who had the chance to paintings with George really feel an incredible loss,” the corporate stated in a observation.
George and spouse Irene Bell based B&B Attachments in 1980. Buying and selling first from their house in Headley, close to Newbury, then increasing the industry to Inkpen, Berkshire, they later opened an place of business within the Northeast of England, the place George were born.
In November, Amilcare Merlo, president and founding father of the Merlo Workforce, passed on to the great beyond on the age of 88.
Members of the family described Merlo as “a super and visionary entrepreneur with an innate interest and outstanding technical abilities, due to which he led the improvement of a large number of cutting edge tasks within the box of agricultural and business mechanics that made him, to all intents and functions, a pace-setter in innovation and a pioneer within the sector”.
In December, the fabrics dealing with trade misplaced a valued adviser, with the passing of Bob Currie, founder and president of Currie Control Experts. MHEDA described Currie as “a super useful resource and guide to loads of fabrics dealing with execs”, including that his loss used to be felt through many that got here to depend on his perception and experience.
- Subsequent week: What to anticipate within the 12 months forward – and the best way to get ready for it.
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